Cetraria islandica subspecies crispiformis, one of the two subspecies of "true Iceland lichen", on mossy soil. Portage Creek, near Anchorage, Alaska. Cetraria islandica was used in Scandinavia as a famine food and also as a bread additive. It was used widely as an herbal medicine for various ailments and as a tonic.
|Photograph copyright Stephen/Sylvia Sharnoff|