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Cetraria islandica subspecies crispiformis, one of the two subspecies of "true Iceland lichen", on mossy soil. Portage Creek, near Anchorage, Alaska. Cetraria islandica was used in Scandinavia as a famine food and also as a bread additive. It was used widely as an herbal medicine for various ailments and as a tonic.







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Photograph copyright Stephen/Sylvia Sharnoff