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 Boreal forest in the Laurentians, Quebec, with widely-spaced spruce trees and a dense ground cover of lichens, mostly species of Cladonia. This vegetation pattern is called a lichen-spruce woodland.

These lichens on the ground are the primary food of caribou, especially in winter, but woodland caribou will eat substantial amounts of arboreal lichens, especially species of Bryoria, off the trees.

Photograph copyright Stephen/Sylvia Sharnoff